Click on the photo to go to the book web site

]]> | I am feeling quite proud and privileged to have been an advisor to the Natural History Museum Life in the Dark exhibition. Sometimes being a diver and cave diver can lead to unusual events. Late last year I was contacted by the Natural History Museum in London asking a few questions on an exhibition they were planning. The initial contact they made turned in to my being asked to act as an advisor and contributor to the exhibition. Life in the Dark leaves daylight behind and allows visitors to put their senses to the test in a truly illuminating exhibition. You get to meet the creatures that thrive at night, in pitch black caves and deep in the sea. Visitors can enter the worlds of nocturnal animals and discover how they find their way around in their environment, hunt, mate and evade predators. Part of the exhibition gives an insight in to how humans have discovered the creatures that live in the shadows, inhabit submerged cave passages or live in the cold, black deep oceans. It was with the submerged cave passages that the museum wanted my help. As well as contributing toward a film and sound track I was asked to help construct a ‘cave diver’, to show visitors how we go about exploring the water filled subterranean world. The start point was getting equipment manufacturers involved and my thanks go to AP Diving, Otter Drysuits, Apeks, Suunto and Nautilus Diving for all their help in providing everything we needed to build our cave diver. As well as giving advise on the construction and display of our cave diver, I also gave a few ‘cave diving lessons’ to engineers and designers in order they better understood what we do when we cave dive and so allow them to more accurately portray the cave diver. Regular trips to the museum, along with online consultations over the months of the build and subsequent installation of the cave diver were part of a fascinating cooperation and it was a privilege and pleasure to work with so many dedicated and professional staff at the museum. Finally all was ready and although I was out of the UK on opening day I have seen the exhibition a number of times and it does not loose it’s appeal. It is truly an amazing and educational exhibition and well worth a visit. My involvement with the Natural History Museum has not stopped and I have given a number of presentations to museum visitors as part of the Nature Live programme, with more lined up for November. So if you have the time, do go and visit this wonderful exhibition and it the next Nature Live talks are planned for late November. More information on the exhibition can be found on the Natural History Museum website here http://www.nhm.ac.uk Dates and times for the nature Live talks will be published as soon as they are confirmed. |

Madison Blue Jan 2018]]>

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6ZnzyxcrFk

Spaces are available for this coming winter in Florida in November this year and early January 2019.]]>

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VY62THOJVuo

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In my last post (Choosing Trimix Diluent) I discussed one way of calculating and choosing your CCR diluent for a trimix dive. The process used did not consider O2 to be narcotic but how would you calculate the mix if you prefer to consider oxygen to be narcotic.

Our start point is exactly the same, we would choose the fraction of oxygen (FO2), based on a safe maximum PO2 of the diluent at our Maximum Operating Depth (MOD).

So using the same depth as the previous post as an example, on a dive to 70m and a maximum PO2 of our diluent at our MOD of 1.0 we would have a FO2 of: -

70m = 8 Bar

PO2/P (where P is the depth as an absolute pressure) = FO2

1.0/8 = 0.125

So we would probably choose an FO2 of 0.12 (12% O2) for the oxygen in our diluent.

Having calculated the FO2 we want, the next step is to calculate how much helium we will need in the loop to meet our chosen Equivalent Narcotic Depth (END). We need to calculate the loop fraction of helium first as this will then tell us what we need to have in our diluent. Remember that because we are on a constant PO2, our loop gas will not be the same as our diluent and in fact will contain a little more oxygen than our diluent. As we are considering oxygen to be narcotic, we need to take this slight increase in FO2 in to account.

So, the fraction of helium needed in the loop (FHe loop) =

1 - (END/P) where END and P (pressure at actual dive depth) are in absolute pressure.

If we chose a 30m END = 4 Bar, and have already planned our dive depth to be 70m, P = 8 Bar

1 - (4/8) = .50

So, the FHe in the loop is .50 (or 50% He)

In order to calculate how much helium we need in the diluent we simply use:-

FHe diluent = 1 - [(1 - FO2 loop - FHe loop) + FO2 dil)]

Firstly, let us check the FO2 in the loop.

Setpoint/P will give us this so:-

1.3/8 = .1625 (rounded down to .16 or 16%)

Therefore, using the above formula, the helium we want in our diluent cylinder is:-

FHe dil = 1 - [(1 - .16 - .50) + .12]

This leads to a diluent FHe of .54 or 54% in our diluent cylinder.

Some of you might have slightly different figures depending on if or how you have rounded up or down your calculations. I tend to round down the O2 and round up the He for conservatism.

Please bear in mind that none of this is a substitute for proper CCR and trimix training.

Safe diving.

© Eau2 & Martin Robson 2017

]]>Our start point is exactly the same, we would choose the fraction of oxygen (FO2), based on a safe maximum PO2 of the diluent at our Maximum Operating Depth (MOD).

So using the same depth as the previous post as an example, on a dive to 70m and a maximum PO2 of our diluent at our MOD of 1.0 we would have a FO2 of: -

70m = 8 Bar

PO2/P (where P is the depth as an absolute pressure) = FO2

1.0/8 = 0.125

So we would probably choose an FO2 of 0.12 (12% O2) for the oxygen in our diluent.

Having calculated the FO2 we want, the next step is to calculate how much helium we will need in the loop to meet our chosen Equivalent Narcotic Depth (END). We need to calculate the loop fraction of helium first as this will then tell us what we need to have in our diluent. Remember that because we are on a constant PO2, our loop gas will not be the same as our diluent and in fact will contain a little more oxygen than our diluent. As we are considering oxygen to be narcotic, we need to take this slight increase in FO2 in to account.

So, the fraction of helium needed in the loop (FHe loop) =

1 - (END/P) where END and P (pressure at actual dive depth) are in absolute pressure.

If we chose a 30m END = 4 Bar, and have already planned our dive depth to be 70m, P = 8 Bar

1 - (4/8) = .50

So, the FHe in the loop is .50 (or 50% He)

In order to calculate how much helium we need in the diluent we simply use:-

FHe diluent = 1 - [(1 - FO2 loop - FHe loop) + FO2 dil)]

Firstly, let us check the FO2 in the loop.

Setpoint/P will give us this so:-

1.3/8 = .1625 (rounded down to .16 or 16%)

Therefore, using the above formula, the helium we want in our diluent cylinder is:-

FHe dil = 1 - [(1 - .16 - .50) + .12]

This leads to a diluent FHe of .54 or 54% in our diluent cylinder.

Some of you might have slightly different figures depending on if or how you have rounded up or down your calculations. I tend to round down the O2 and round up the He for conservatism.

Please bear in mind that none of this is a substitute for proper CCR and trimix training.

Safe diving.

© Eau2 & Martin Robson 2017

Choosing a trimix diluent for your CCR is a relatively straight forward process but there are a few ‘rules’ or reasonably well accepted safe diving practices that can help you to ensure your gas is safe and suitable for the planned diving depth.

In a previous blog post ‘Choosing OC Trimix’ I referred to some of the well established limits for the PO2 of a gas, be it for your bottom mix or decompression gas. In that post I said that we could consider a PO2 of 1.4 as our ‘working’ limit and the start point for calculating the FO2 for the best mix for our trimix dive.

When diving on OC, the moment we get shallower, the PO2 will fall with a consequent reduction in CNS% per minute and OTUs per minute.

That is not the case with CCR. On a constant partial pressure of oxygen our CNS% per minute and OTUs per minute will also remain constant irrespective of a reduction in ambient pressure. This means as CCR divers we are exposed overall to a higher or potentially very high CNS% and OTU loading by the end of the dive.

This is one reason that our start point for the PO2 of our diluent at maximum operating depth (MOD) is much lower than on OC.

Another reason is that if we have a higher FO2 in our diluent, for example one that matches our setpoint at 1.3, it would be difficult if not impossible to flush the loop down should you need to reduce the loop PO2 and/or check the response of your cells.

Depending on which manual you might read or one particular training organisation’s preference compared to another it is generally considered to safe to apply one of the following rules:-

Max PO2 of diluent at MOD ≤ 1.0 - 1.1

Max PO2 of diluent at MOD = Dive setpoint - 0.2

Most of us probably dive with a setpoint in the region of 1.3 - 1.2 PO2 so either rule will put us roughly at the same start point.

So, for example, on a dive to 70m and a maximum PO2 of our diluent at our MOD of 1.0 we would have a FO2 of: -

70m = 8 Bar

1.0/8 = 0.125

So we might well choose an FO2 of 0.12 (12% O2) for the oxygen in our diluent.

The next step is to choose the level of narcosis with which we are comfortable. In this example I am going to elect that oxygen is not narcotic. In a previous blog post, Is Oxygen Narcotic I discussed this and of course it is a personal decision and divers can factor in oxygen as causing narcosis if they prefer.

As outlined in the post about choosing OC trimix, what we are actually doing is calculating the amount of nitrogen (N2) we want in the mix and whatever is ‘left over’ is the helium (He) content.

So as an example let us have an equivalent narcotic depth (END) of 30m.

The FN2 in air is 0.79 so the PN2 at 30m (4 bar) is:-

0.79 x 4 = 3.16

If we want to keep the same PN2 at our Mod of 70m we simply divide 3.16 by the absolute pressure at 70m so:-

3.16/8 = 0.396

So, the fraction of nitrogen in the mix should be 0.395 (we can round it to 0.40). We now have:-

FO2 = 0.12

FN2 = 0.40

The remaining 0.48 (48%) is made up with helium. So our onboard trimix diluent is going to be 12/48.

I hope this post is useful. If you have any questions or I can help in any way you are very welcome to email me at martin@eau2.com

Safe diving.

© Eau2 & Martin Robson 2017

]]>In a previous blog post ‘Choosing OC Trimix’ I referred to some of the well established limits for the PO2 of a gas, be it for your bottom mix or decompression gas. In that post I said that we could consider a PO2 of 1.4 as our ‘working’ limit and the start point for calculating the FO2 for the best mix for our trimix dive.

When diving on OC, the moment we get shallower, the PO2 will fall with a consequent reduction in CNS% per minute and OTUs per minute.

That is not the case with CCR. On a constant partial pressure of oxygen our CNS% per minute and OTUs per minute will also remain constant irrespective of a reduction in ambient pressure. This means as CCR divers we are exposed overall to a higher or potentially very high CNS% and OTU loading by the end of the dive.

This is one reason that our start point for the PO2 of our diluent at maximum operating depth (MOD) is much lower than on OC.

Another reason is that if we have a higher FO2 in our diluent, for example one that matches our setpoint at 1.3, it would be difficult if not impossible to flush the loop down should you need to reduce the loop PO2 and/or check the response of your cells.

Depending on which manual you might read or one particular training organisation’s preference compared to another it is generally considered to safe to apply one of the following rules:-

Max PO2 of diluent at MOD ≤ 1.0 - 1.1

Max PO2 of diluent at MOD = Dive setpoint - 0.2

Most of us probably dive with a setpoint in the region of 1.3 - 1.2 PO2 so either rule will put us roughly at the same start point.

So, for example, on a dive to 70m and a maximum PO2 of our diluent at our MOD of 1.0 we would have a FO2 of: -

70m = 8 Bar

1.0/8 = 0.125

So we might well choose an FO2 of 0.12 (12% O2) for the oxygen in our diluent.

The next step is to choose the level of narcosis with which we are comfortable. In this example I am going to elect that oxygen is not narcotic. In a previous blog post, Is Oxygen Narcotic I discussed this and of course it is a personal decision and divers can factor in oxygen as causing narcosis if they prefer.

As outlined in the post about choosing OC trimix, what we are actually doing is calculating the amount of nitrogen (N2) we want in the mix and whatever is ‘left over’ is the helium (He) content.

So as an example let us have an equivalent narcotic depth (END) of 30m.

The FN2 in air is 0.79 so the PN2 at 30m (4 bar) is:-

0.79 x 4 = 3.16

If we want to keep the same PN2 at our Mod of 70m we simply divide 3.16 by the absolute pressure at 70m so:-

3.16/8 = 0.396

So, the fraction of nitrogen in the mix should be 0.395 (we can round it to 0.40). We now have:-

FO2 = 0.12

FN2 = 0.40

The remaining 0.48 (48%) is made up with helium. So our onboard trimix diluent is going to be 12/48.

I hope this post is useful. If you have any questions or I can help in any way you are very welcome to email me at martin@eau2.com

Safe diving.

© Eau2 & Martin Robson 2017

I really would like to say thank you to all those at this years Tek Camp who came to listen to my presentation. Unlike many of the other (excellent) presentations, mine did not include exciting wrecks or caves or big diving expeditions and was perhaps a little bit scientific. Nonetheless I had a lot of very positive feedback from a very interested audience. The talk focused on oxygen and some of it's effects on our physiology when diving. So, following on from a previous post looking at choosing OC gasses and including one of the subjects I covered at Tek Camp, let us have a quick look at the subject of whether oxygen should be considered as narcotic for the purposes of diving.

There has been some research done on the subject and I will try to summarise some of the keys points. I will also try to dig out some of the references and post them at some point so you can look at the complete documents if you want.

We all know that the site for the narcotic effect is the brain, specifically the cell wall of the cells within the brain. Given the same partial pressure of oxygen or nitrogen at this site they will both be equally narcotic as predicted by the Meyer Overton law relating to fat solubility and to some extent the molecular size and weight to narcotic potency.

This holds true for all substances exerting an anaesthetic effect. The only difference between anaesthesia with an inhaled modern medical agent and nitrogen narcosis is the partial pressure required for the effect. This is about 0.01 of a bar of isoflourane and about 15 bar for N2 to produce the same level of unconsciousness!

However although the brain is very well supplied with O2 it is also a big consumer of O2. The brain uses oxygen at a high rate and so the tissue partial pressure remains low when breathing air at 1 bar. In order to supply the brain with sufficient O2 we have the compound haemoglobin in blood cells which increases the amount of oxygen carried from 0.3 mls per 100mls dissolved in plasma to 20mls/100mls in red cells with haemoglobin. When breathing air the haemoglobin is fully saturated with oxygen in blood going to the brain in healthy individuals.

This means that increasing the PPO2 in the inspired gas has little effect on the amount of O2 delivered to the brain and so the tissue PO2 (our effect site for narcosis) does not rise until quite high PPO2s, probably in the region of 1.5 - 2.0 bar. This is also the region of CNS O2 toxicity and hence not often breathed underwater or if so, not usually for extended periods of time or at great depth.

Thus whilst O2 is narcotic and can be demonstrated to be so under controlled chamber conditions at a PPO2 of around 3.0 bar, the risk of CNS O2 toxicity also limits the narcotic effect in practical terms underwater.

Incidentally, the effect of increased CO2 (from skip breathing, poor breathing patterns or an issue with CO2 removal or component failure in a CCR) increases blood flow to the brain. CO2 is an epileptogenic, i.e. high levels of CO2 lower the threshold at which a seizure may occur. Increased CO2 is a far more effective way of increasing O2 flow to brain tissue and helps explains an increase in narcotic effect and heightened risk of CNS O2 toxicity and convulsions in the ‘borderline’ region of 1.5 - 2. 0 bar inspired PPO2.

So, both points of view are essentially correct in different circumstances.

So, if you want to include O2 in your equivalent narcotic depth (END) calculations, choose your preferred narcotic depth then:-

FN2 = (END/P) - FO2

where FN2 is the fraction of nitrogen you will have in your trimix, the END is the Equivalent Narcotic Depth you have chosen and P is the absolute pressure of the dive depth.

If we follow on from the example used in the previous post where we used a dive PO2 of 1.35 Bar to calculate our FO2 for a 60m dive we had an FO2 of .18 or 18%.

Our chosen EAD for that dive was 30m so for an END of 30m we use:-

END = 33m = 4.3 Bar

P = 60m = 7 Bar

FN2 = (4.3/7) - FO2

FN2 = (4.3/7) - .18

FN2 = .434

In the previous post our mix was calculated to be 18/37 (i.e. .FHe of 37 or 37% HE). Using the formula to include O2 as narcotic gives us a mix of 18/39, so just a little bit more helium in the mix when counting O2 as narcotic.

FHe = 1 - FO2 - FN2

FHe = 1 - .18 - .43 = .39

Safe diving.

© Eau2 & Martin Robson 2016

]]>There has been some research done on the subject and I will try to summarise some of the keys points. I will also try to dig out some of the references and post them at some point so you can look at the complete documents if you want.

We all know that the site for the narcotic effect is the brain, specifically the cell wall of the cells within the brain. Given the same partial pressure of oxygen or nitrogen at this site they will both be equally narcotic as predicted by the Meyer Overton law relating to fat solubility and to some extent the molecular size and weight to narcotic potency.

This holds true for all substances exerting an anaesthetic effect. The only difference between anaesthesia with an inhaled modern medical agent and nitrogen narcosis is the partial pressure required for the effect. This is about 0.01 of a bar of isoflourane and about 15 bar for N2 to produce the same level of unconsciousness!

However although the brain is very well supplied with O2 it is also a big consumer of O2. The brain uses oxygen at a high rate and so the tissue partial pressure remains low when breathing air at 1 bar. In order to supply the brain with sufficient O2 we have the compound haemoglobin in blood cells which increases the amount of oxygen carried from 0.3 mls per 100mls dissolved in plasma to 20mls/100mls in red cells with haemoglobin. When breathing air the haemoglobin is fully saturated with oxygen in blood going to the brain in healthy individuals.

This means that increasing the PPO2 in the inspired gas has little effect on the amount of O2 delivered to the brain and so the tissue PO2 (our effect site for narcosis) does not rise until quite high PPO2s, probably in the region of 1.5 - 2.0 bar. This is also the region of CNS O2 toxicity and hence not often breathed underwater or if so, not usually for extended periods of time or at great depth.

Thus whilst O2 is narcotic and can be demonstrated to be so under controlled chamber conditions at a PPO2 of around 3.0 bar, the risk of CNS O2 toxicity also limits the narcotic effect in practical terms underwater.

Incidentally, the effect of increased CO2 (from skip breathing, poor breathing patterns or an issue with CO2 removal or component failure in a CCR) increases blood flow to the brain. CO2 is an epileptogenic, i.e. high levels of CO2 lower the threshold at which a seizure may occur. Increased CO2 is a far more effective way of increasing O2 flow to brain tissue and helps explains an increase in narcotic effect and heightened risk of CNS O2 toxicity and convulsions in the ‘borderline’ region of 1.5 - 2. 0 bar inspired PPO2.

So, both points of view are essentially correct in different circumstances.

So, if you want to include O2 in your equivalent narcotic depth (END) calculations, choose your preferred narcotic depth then:-

FN2 = (END/P) - FO2

where FN2 is the fraction of nitrogen you will have in your trimix, the END is the Equivalent Narcotic Depth you have chosen and P is the absolute pressure of the dive depth.

If we follow on from the example used in the previous post where we used a dive PO2 of 1.35 Bar to calculate our FO2 for a 60m dive we had an FO2 of .18 or 18%.

Our chosen EAD for that dive was 30m so for an END of 30m we use:-

END = 33m = 4.3 Bar

P = 60m = 7 Bar

FN2 = (4.3/7) - FO2

FN2 = (4.3/7) - .18

FN2 = .434

In the previous post our mix was calculated to be 18/37 (i.e. .FHe of 37 or 37% HE). Using the formula to include O2 as narcotic gives us a mix of 18/39, so just a little bit more helium in the mix when counting O2 as narcotic.

FHe = 1 - FO2 - FN2

FHe = 1 - .18 - .43 = .39

Safe diving.

© Eau2 & Martin Robson 2016

It's almost that time again. If you have not already booked then get in touch and reserve your place. It is going to be another amazing event.

http://www.tekcamp.co.uk

]]>http://www.tekcamp.co.uk